A senior official Igor Kirillov said Washington is creating biological laboratories in different countries and connecting them to a unified system.
Kirillov is the Chief of the Radiation, Chemical and Biological Defence Forces of the Russian Armed Forces.
He said in territories bordering Russia and China, there have been about 60 facilities modernised since 2005 with funding from America.
Kirillov alleged that the US has spent more than $5 billion on military biological programmes, Xinhua quoted him as saying.
The military chief said the facilities are monitoring the biological situation in proposed areas for the deployment of North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) contingents.
“It is collecting and delivering strains of dangerous microorganisms to the United States and studying potential agents of biological weapons.
“Agents specific to a given region, having natural foci and capable of being transmitted to humans are also being studied”, he added.